The studies below have no relationship with NutriMost or Weight Loss Direct, but may have interest due to weight loss relevance and other factors.


A. RESEARCH INVOLVING LOW CALORIE DIETS (approx.. 800 calories)


There has been various relevant research studies in which a diet of approximately 800 calories was shown to produce rapid and substantial weight loss, while a statistically significant proportion of the participants with type 2 diabetes and hypertension were able to overcome those challenges.

The DiRECT Trial
Background: This is an ISRCTN registered trial (#03267836) which explored the ability to achieve substantial weight loss as well as remission from type 2 diabetes using a low calorie diet (825 to 853 calorie/day) for 3-5 months diet then reintroduction of food and structured support for long-term weight loss results.

Summary: The results of the study were spectacular with “…almost half of participants (46%) to revert to a non-diabetic state, off  antidiabetic drugs at 12 months, and 68% stopped antihypertensive medications with no rise in blood pressure.

The study found that there was a direct and high correlation between weight loss and remission of diabetes.

In the study, 24% of participants lost 15kg. (33lbs.) or more in the Low Calorie group. Of those that lost 15kg. (33lbs.) or more, 86% achieved remission of diabetes.

57% of participants who lost 10kg. to 15kg. (22 lbs. to 33lbs.) were able to achieve remission of diabetes.

34% of participants who lost 5kg. to 10kg. (11 lbs. to 22lbs.) were able to achieve remission of diabetes.

Reference: Lean, M., Leslie, W., Barnes, A., et al. (2018). Primary care-led weight management for the remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet, 391(10120), pp. 541-551. View study


The DIOGenes Trial (Diet, Obesity and Genes Dietary Study)
Background: In 2010, Researchers at the Faculty of Life Sciences (LIFE), University of Copenhagen, conducted the world’s largest diet study at that time in which overweight adults followed an 800 calorie diet for 8 weeks and then were randomly assigned to one of five different low-fat diet types which they followed for six months in an effort to determine which diet was the most effective at preventing weight regain.

Results: After 8 weeks on a low calorie (800 calorie) diet, the average participant lost 11 kg. (24.25 lbs.) of weight.

After the 8-week initial weight loss period the participants were then randomly assigned to one of five different types of low-fat diets which they followed for six months in an effort to determine which diet was the most effective at preventing weight regain. The results of the study showed that after 6 months, the high protein, low glycemic index diet worked best for preventing weight regain.

Reference: Thomas Meinert Larsen, Stine-Mathilde Dalskov, Marleen van Baak, Susan A. Jebb, Angeliki Papadaki, Andreas F.H. Pfeiffer, J. Alfredo Martinez, Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska, Marie Kunešová, Mats Pihlsgård, Steen Stender, Claus Holst, Wim H.M. Saris, Arne Astrup. Diets with High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index for Weight-Loss MaintenanceNew England Journal of Medicine, 2010; 363 (22): 2102 View Study


B. RESEARCH COMPARING FAST WEIGHT LOSS TO SLOW WEIGHT LOSS


The TOURS Study
Background: This study was taken from participants of the TOURS study. The purpose of the study was to determine whether rapid initial weight loss or gradual initial weight loss was optimal for long-term weight reduction. A

Results: This study suggested and found evidence that fast weight loss users had more significant weight loss while their weight loss was easier to maintain and resulted in less susceptibility to weight regain as compared to more gradual weight loss.

In fact this study found that participants with fast weight loss were 5.1 times more likely to reach their goal of 10% weight reduction at 18 months than the slow weight loss group.

Reference: Nackers LM, Ross KM, Perri MG. The association between rate of initial weight loss and long-term success in obesity treatment: does slow and steady win the race?. Int J Behav Med. 2010;17(3):161–167. doi:10.1007/s12529-010-9092-y  View study


C. RESEARCH REGARDING WEIGHT MAINTENANCE & WEIGHT REGAIN


Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

Background: The purpose of this review of literature and various studies is to determine the factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance and the factors associated with weight regain.

Results: A review of literature regarding weight maintenance and weight regain found that “successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours.”

The conclusion of this study was that the greater amount of initial weight loss in obese patients, the larger the total weight loss observed at long term follow-up.

Reference: Elfhag K, Rössner S. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. Obes Rev. 2005; 6:67–85. [PubMed: 15655039] View study

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.849.558&rep=rep1&type=pdf



Lessons from obesity management programmes: greater initial weight loss improves long-term maintenance.

Background: The purpose of this review of literature and various studies was to determine the association between greater initial weight loss and successful weight loss maintenance over the long term.

Results: This review of the available literature and trials shows evidence that greater initial weight loss is positively, not negatively, related to long-term weight maintenance.

This review goes on to state that the evidence from randomized intervention trials support that a greater initial weight loss improves long-term weight maintenance, providing it is followed by 1–2 years of an integrated weight maintenance program that consists of lifestyle interventions involving dietary change, nutritional education, behavior therapy and increased physical activity.

The study concluded that greater initial weight loss was the first step to improved sustained weight maintenance.

Reference: Astrup A, Rössner S. Lessons from obesity management programmes: greater initial weight loss improves long-term maintenance. Obes Rev. 2000; 1:17–9. [PubMed: 12119640] View study